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Ch 8: World Religion: Christianity: Help and Review

About This Chapter

The World Religion: Christianity chapter of this Introduction to World Religions Help and Review course is the simplest way to master world religion and Christianity. This chapter uses simple and fun videos that are about five minutes long, plus lesson quizzes and a chapter exam to ensure students learn the essentials of world religion and Christianity.

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  • Verify you're ready by completing the World Religion and Christianity chapter exam.

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Students will review:

This chapter helps students review the concepts in a world religion and Christianity unit of a standard introduction to world religion course. Topics covered include:

  • The Gospels
  • The early Christian Church's ties to Judaism
  • Comparison of Christianity and Judaism in the Roman Empire
  • Paul and the early Church's apostles and disciples
  • The Pharisees and Sadducees
  • Christian persecution starting with Stephen
  • The conversion of Constantine and the ascent of Christianity to state religion
  • St. Augustine's City of God
  • Charlemagne's Holy Roman Empire
  • The Great Crusades
  • The Great Schism
  • Thomas Aquinas and reason
  • Martin Luther and the birth of the Protestant Reformation
  • Calvin and Zwingli's teachings in the Reformation
  • The sacraments of the Roman Catholic Church
  • The Council of Trent
  • The 20th century's ecumenical movement

78 Lessons in Chapter 8: World Religion: Christianity: Help and Review
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
The 7 Catholic Sacraments: Definition & History

1. The 7 Catholic Sacraments: Definition & History

In this lesson, we will examine the seven Catholic sacraments. First, we will define 'sacrament' in general. Then, we will take a brief look at each of the seven sacraments. Finally, we will explore the history of the sacraments.

The Gospels: The Life of Christ

2. The Gospels: The Life of Christ

This lesson will be a brief exploration of the life of Christ. It will highlight His virgin birth, public ministry, the reasons for His crucifixion, His resurrection and the Christian message that Christ offered salvation to all who believe in His name.

The Anointing of the Sick: Definition, History  & Symbols

3. The Anointing of the Sick: Definition, History & Symbols

In this lesson, we will examine the Catholic sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick. After defining the sacrament, we will discuss the circumstances under which it is administered, its effects, its symbols, and finally, its history.

The Early Christian Church and Its Ties to Judaism

4. The Early Christian Church and Its Ties to Judaism

This lesson will explore the early Christian Church and its close connection to Judaism. It will highlight the similarities of these two faiths in reference to the Holy Scriptures while also exploring their disagreement over the person of Jesus Christ.

What is the Sacrament of Confirmation? - Definition & Symbols

5. What is the Sacrament of Confirmation? - Definition & Symbols

This lesson will cover the Catholic sacrament of Confirmation, taking a close look at the definition and effects of the sacrament, its recipients, its celebration, and its symbols.

Paul and the Early Church Fathers

6. Paul and the Early Church Fathers

This lesson will identify the earliest Church Fathers as the 12 disciples and the Apostle Paul. In doing this, it will highlight the persecution of the Christian Church as well as the conversion of Saul, known to history as Paul.

Early Critics of Christ: Pharisees and Sadducees

7. Early Critics of Christ: Pharisees and Sadducees

This lesson will seek to explain the ancient Jewish sects known to history as the Sadducees and the Pharisees. Along with these sects' beliefs and positions in society, it will also explore their dealings with Jesus Christ.

St. Stephen & Christians in the Roman Empire

8. St. Stephen & Christians in the Roman Empire

For much of the early history of Christianity, worship was heavily persecuted. In this lesson, we look at the beginning of that persecution with Saint Stephen, as well as the changing relationship between Rome and the Church.

The Conversion of Constantine and the Ascent of Christianity

9. The Conversion of Constantine and the Ascent of Christianity

This lesson will explain the conversion of Constantine and the ascent of Christianity. In doing this, it will highlight the Edict of Milan and the famous Council of Nicaea.

St. Augustine's City of God

10. St. Augustine's City of God

This lesson explores the life of St. Augustine and one his most famous works, The City of God. As we explore this work, we'll highlight Rome's disdain for the Christian faith and Augustine's argument against Rome's religious position.

Charlemagne's Holy Roman Empire and the Divine Right to Rule

11. Charlemagne's Holy Roman Empire and the Divine Right to Rule

This lesson will explore the rule of Charlemagne and his exercise of the divine right of kings. It will highlight his reign as Holy Roman Emperor, focusing on his military conquests and his cultural reforms.

The Great Crusades: History and Timeline

12. The Great Crusades: History and Timeline

This lesson examines the utter failure of the later crusades. We look at some of the factors that led to this failure. We then have a glimpse at each of the major crusades abroad, as well as the political and heretical crusades in Europe.

The Great Schism Between the East and Western Churches

13. The Great Schism Between the East and Western Churches

This lesson will define and explain the Great Schism, which led to the formation of Western Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy. In doing so, it will highlight the political and cultural factors that led to the the great divide.

Thomas Aquinas' Influence on the Catholic Church

14. Thomas Aquinas' Influence on the Catholic Church

St. Thomas Aquinas was perhaps the most important figure of the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages. This lesson examines what he did to help protect the Church against a rebirth of critical thinking by using critical thinking to defend the Church.

Martin Luther, the 95 Theses and the Birth of the Protestant Reformation

15. Martin Luther, the 95 Theses and the Birth of the Protestant Reformation

This lesson covers the start of the Protestant Reformation. It begins by comparing the vast array and peacefulness of Christian denominations in modern days to the limited choices and violence of the past. Then it goes into the story of Martin Luther, from his 95 Theses through the Diet of Worms up to the beginning of the German Peasant Revolt.

Religious Reform in Switzerland: Calvin & Zwingli's Teachings in the Reformation

16. Religious Reform in Switzerland: Calvin & Zwingli's Teachings in the Reformation

The Protestant Reformation resulted in many people splitting from the Catholic Church. This lesson explores the effect of the Reformation in Switzerland under the leadership of Zwingli and Calvin.

The Seven Sacraments of the Roman Catholic Church

17. The Seven Sacraments of the Roman Catholic Church

This lesson will explore the seven Catholic sacraments of baptism, Eucharist, reconciliation, confirmation, marriage, Holy Orders, and Anointing of the Sick. In doing so, it will also highlight penance and confession.

The Council of Trent: The Catholic Church Survives the Reformation

18. The Council of Trent: The Catholic Church Survives the Reformation

The Protestant Reformation was a movement of Christians who disagreed with some of the teachings and actions of the Catholic Church. This article explores the effect of the Reformation on the Church.

The Ecumenical Movement of the 20th Century

19. The Ecumenical Movement of the 20th Century

This lesson will seek to explain the Ecumenical Movement of the 20th century. In doing so it will highlight Protestantism, the Edinburgh Missionary Conference, and the first Council of World Churches.

Anicius Boethius: Biography & Music

20. Anicius Boethius: Biography & Music

Anicius Boethius was a philosopher, and scholar of musical theory during the Middle Ages. If anyone lived the life of a celebrity academic, it was Boethius. His story is one of both fortune and disaster, and his work in musical theory helped form the way we think and talk about music. While today's musicians may want to move like Jagger, the teachings in the ''The Fundamentals of Music'' made musicians for over a thousand years want to move like Anicius Boethius!

St. Peter's Basilica in Rome: Architecture & History

21. St. Peter's Basilica in Rome: Architecture & History

What do 13 Catholic popes and 14 architects have in common? Aside from their shared Italian heritage, they were all instrumental in building St. Peter's Basilica. In this lesson you will learn about this famous church's history and architecture.

The Duomo Cathedral of Florence: Architecture, History & Facts

22. The Duomo Cathedral of Florence: Architecture, History & Facts

In this lesson, you'll explore the creation, development, and significance of one of Italy's most important churches and increase your knowledge of architecture, art, and history. When you are through, test your knowledge with a quiz.

Catholic Doctrine of Transubstantiation: Definition & Overview

23. Catholic Doctrine of Transubstantiation: Definition & Overview

This lesson will define the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation in detail, provide a brief history of the term, and discuss transubstantiation in practice.

Catholic Indulgences: Definition & History

24. Catholic Indulgences: Definition & History

In this lesson, you'll learn about indulgences as they relate to Catholic doctrine and practice. You'll learn what an indulgence is, and what role indulgences played in Church history.

Cesare Borgia: Life & Death

25. Cesare Borgia: Life & Death

This lesson examines the life and death of Cesare Borgia. Born into the highly ambitious and infamous Borgia family, through his life Cesare carved a lasting legacy for himself and became the most famous of Pope Alexander's children.

Church of England: History & Beliefs

26. Church of England: History & Beliefs

Explore the history and key beliefs of the Church of England, a Protestant faith based in the European Reformation. End your discovery with a short cycle quiz to assess what knowledge you gained.

Church of Ireland: History & Concept

27. Church of Ireland: History & Concept

In this lesson, you will learn about the history of the Church of Ireland. The lesson will discuss the origins and growth of the church, and its relationship to the struggles between Ireland and Britain.

John Calvin: Religion, Beliefs & Quotes

28. John Calvin: Religion, Beliefs & Quotes

In this lesson, we will learn about an influential Protestant theologian: John Calvin. We will learn who he was and why he is important. We will also discuss the system of belief he developed, often called 'Calvinism.' Finally, we will see some quotes from John Calvin.

Lutheranism: History & Beliefs

29. Lutheranism: History & Beliefs

Lutheranism is a major sect of Christianity. We'll examine its origins, its founder Martin Luther, and the beliefs of Lutherans worldwide. We'll then briefly compare Lutheranism to Catholicism.

Mennonites: History, Definition & Culture

30. Mennonites: History, Definition & Culture

Through this lesson you will learn about some of the characteristics that define the Mennonite religion, how the faith evolved, and what kind of role it plays in the present day.

Moravians: History & Overview

31. Moravians: History & Overview

In this lesson, explore the history and spiritual views of the Moravians, a minority religious group from Germany who believed in spiritual equality for all believers. Discover how this small religious group grew from one community in Germany into an international religious community.

Narthex: Definition & Overview

32. Narthex: Definition & Overview

Study the history and design of the architectural feature of early churches called the Narthex. Then, test your understanding about early church design and religious culture.

Omnipotent, Omniscient and Omnipresent God: Definition & Overview

33. Omnipotent, Omniscient and Omnipresent God: Definition & Overview

In this lesson, we will learn about three theological terms: omnipotence, omniscience, and omnipresence. In monotheistic religions, these terms are used to describe the nature of God.

The Anabaptists: History & Beliefs

34. The Anabaptists: History & Beliefs

During the 16th century, a religious reform movement swept through Europe. Advocating the total separation of church and state, Anabaptists emerged with one of the more radical movements. In this lesson, learn the origin, history, and beliefs of this group.

The Dutch Reformed Church: History & Beliefs

35. The Dutch Reformed Church: History & Beliefs

What is a 'Reformed' Church and why was the Dutch one so important? In this lesson, we will learn the history of the Dutch Reformed Church, as well as examine the theological beliefs that make them unique.

The Ecumenical Council of Churches: Definition & Overview

36. The Ecumenical Council of Churches: Definition & Overview

Learn what the Ecumenical Council of Churches, or World Council of Churches were and the kind of impact they have had on Christianity and world history.

The Lollards, Followers of John Wycliffe: Definition & Overview

37. The Lollards, Followers of John Wycliffe: Definition & Overview

In this lesson, we will learn about the followers of John Wycliffe, the Lollards. We will learn who they were, what they believed, and how people reacted to them. We will identify the central tenets of their theological approach.

The Pope: History & Timeline

38. The Pope: History & Timeline

Today, the pope is the supreme authority among Catholic Christians. This was not, however, always the case. Learn how the popes rose to power and fell again.

The Sacrament of Holy Orders: Definition, History & Symbols

39. The Sacrament of Holy Orders: Definition, History & Symbols

This lesson discusses the Sacrament of Holy Orders, which is one of seven Catholic sacraments. In this lesson, you will learn what it is, its early history, and the symbols associated with it.

The Sacrament of Reconciliation: Definition, History & Symbols

40. The Sacrament of Reconciliation: Definition, History & Symbols

The Sacrament of Reconciliation is one of the most important penance rituals practiced by Catholics around the world. In this lesson, learn what the sacrament is, its history, and its important symbols.

The Sistine Chapel: History & Frescoes

41. The Sistine Chapel: History & Frescoes

The Sistine Chapel holds incredible significance both for the people of the Catholic faith and also for art-lovers. Read this lesson to discover the history and the frescoes of this renowned chapel.

What are Mormons? - History & Beliefs

42. What are Mormons? - History & Beliefs

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, or the Mormon Church, is the largest homegrown American religion. Learn about the history and beliefs of the Mormons, and check yourself with a quiz.

What are Quakers? - Definition, Beliefs & History

43. What are Quakers? - Definition, Beliefs & History

This lesson explores the nature and history of the Religious Society of Friends, also known as the Quakers. We will review their core doctrinal beliefs, style of worship, and history. Finally, we will look at the three main Quaker traditions that exist today.

What is Baptism? - Definition & Overview

44. What is Baptism? - Definition & Overview

In this lesson we will learn about the meaning of baptism. We will take a closer look at the rationale behind performing the rite, how a baptism is completed and the similarities and recognition amongst various churches of the sacrament.

What is Predestination? - Definition & Theory

45. What is Predestination? - Definition & Theory

In this lesson, we will look at the term 'predestination' as it is used in Christian theology. We will define the term, and understand the theology behind it.

What is the Eucharist? - Definition & Overview

46. What is the Eucharist? - Definition & Overview

In this lesson, we will learn about the theological term, 'Eucharist.' We will learn what the Eucharist is, and what its place is in the Christian religion. We will also discuss the wide variety of views toward the Eucharist.

Monotheism in Christianity: Definition & Overview

47. Monotheism in Christianity: Definition & Overview

Do you believe in one 'God?' How about one God that manifests in three different ways? This lesson explores the way that Christians describe their belief in one God.

What Is the New Testament? - Books, History & Timeline

48. What Is the New Testament? - Books, History & Timeline

The Christian faith is largely built on two founding texts: the Old Testament and the New Testament. Through this lesson, you will be introduced to the New Testament and briefly explore the four sections of the text that have so profoundly influenced the religion.

What Is the Old Testament? - Books & History

49. What Is the Old Testament? - Books & History

The main text of the Christian religion is the Bible, which is made up of two sections. The first section is referred to as the Old Testament, while the second is the New Testament. This lesson will introduce you to the history and books of the Old Testament.

Counter Catholic Reformation: Definition, Music & Timeline

50. Counter Catholic Reformation: Definition, Music & Timeline

Discover how Protestantism changed the course of music in the 16th Century. Learn about music's move away from the rules within the Catholic Church, the leaders of this movement, and new traditions.

What Is Catholicism? - Definition, Beliefs & History

51. What Is Catholicism? - Definition, Beliefs & History

The Roman Catholic Church has a storied history that reaches back 2,000 years and touches all corners of the globe. That said, it has not been without its share of both internal and external conflict. In this lesson, we will define Catholicism and explore its beliefs and history.

History of the King James Bible

52. History of the King James Bible

The King James Bible has greatly influenced not only English literature, but society as a whole. In this lesson, we will explore the history of the King James Bible.

Hymn: Definition & Examples

53. Hymn: Definition & Examples

Hymns are songs of tribute and praise to gods, and many of these songs have encouraged and impacted people throughout the generations. In this lesson, we'll discuss a few examples of famous hymns and the stories behind them.

John Knox: Biography, Timeline & Works

54. John Knox: Biography, Timeline & Works

Most have heard of the Reformation in Europe, but how much do you know about the Scottish Reformation? In this lesson, you will learn about the biography and works of John Knox, one of the foremost Scottish Reformation leaders.

John Owen: Biography, Works & Quotes

55. John Owen: Biography, Works & Quotes

Could you imagine going to college at age 12? Or having 10 out of 11 children die in infancy? How about serving as spiritual advisor to a major political leader? Such was the life of the author John Owen. Read on.

What is Bible Study?

56. What is Bible Study?

This lesson will cover the definition of Bible study. At the end of the lesson, the reader will understand what Bible study is and why it can be important in the studies of history, literature, religion, and science.

What Is the Holy Trinity? - Definition & Overview

57. What Is the Holy Trinity? - Definition & Overview

Ever wanted to unravel the ancient spiritual mysteries of a mystic religion? Then come explore this lesson on the Holy Trinity, where you'll learn more about the intricacies of this fundamental Christian doctrine.

William Tyndale: Biography, Facts & Books

58. William Tyndale: Biography, Facts & Books

So, what if I told you this man was betrayed by his close friend, thrown into prison, strangled, and burned at the stake? Would you want to know why and how this all happened? Read further to find out!

The Jesuits: Definition & History

59. The Jesuits: Definition & History

The Jesuits have been influential in the Catholic Church for over 500 years and are its largest religious order today. Pope Francis is the first Jesuit to hold the highest office in the Catholic Church. We will learn about their incredible history.

Christianity in Ancient Africa

60. Christianity in Ancient Africa

Christianity has been practiced in Africa longer than almost anywhere else, but what this religion has meant in Africa has changed over time. In this lesson, we'll look at the history of Christianity in ancient Africa and see how it spread.

Pope Gregory the Great: Biography & Quotes

61. Pope Gregory the Great: Biography & Quotes

In this lesson, we explore Pope Gregory I. Born in 6th-century Rome and the pope of Western Christianity for 14 years, Gregory served during one of Christianity's most tumultuous periods.

Pope Gregory II: Biography & Accomplishments

62. Pope Gregory II: Biography & Accomplishments

Pope Gregory II was an instrumental figure in Catholic history, and in greater European history as well. In this lesson, we'll talk about the life and achievements of this important figure.

Pope Gregory III: Biography & Facts

63. Pope Gregory III: Biography & Facts

Every pope leaves a different legacy. In this lesson, we'll examine the life and papacy of Pope Gregory III, and examine his role in a changing world.

Pope Gregory IV: Accomplishments & Facts

64. Pope Gregory IV: Accomplishments & Facts

Popes are powerful figures who hold immense religious, social, and political power. Sometimes, this can be hard to handle. In this lesson, we'll look at Pope Gregory IV, and see what happens when papal power turns into papal obligations.

Pope Gregory VI: Biography & Facts

65. Pope Gregory VI: Biography & Facts

Popes have to deal with a lot of drama during their reigns, but not all of them have to deal with it very long. In this lesson, we'll talk about the brief papacy of Pope Gregory VI and see why he only held the title for a single year.

Pope Gregory VII: Biography & Accomplishments

66. Pope Gregory VII: Biography & Accomplishments

Amongst the most influential popes in European history was Pope Gregory VII. In this lesson, we'll talk about Pope Gregory VII's life and career and see how he influenced medieval society.

Pope Gregory VII & Henry IV

67. Pope Gregory VII & Henry IV

Pope Gregory VII was a great reformer who tried to reassert the supremacy of the Pope and the Catholic Church in daily life. This put him in conflict with the most powerful ruler of the time: the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV

Pope Gregory VIII: Biography & Accomplishments

68. Pope Gregory VIII: Biography & Accomplishments

Who says you need a lifetime to accomplish something big? In this lesson, we'll examine the life and career of Pope Gregory VIII, and see what he was able to do during his 57-day reign as Pope.

Pope Gregory IX: History & Facts

69. Pope Gregory IX: History & Facts

In this lesson, we explore the life and work of Pope Gregory IX and the relationship with Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II which defined his papcy in the 13th century.

Pope Gregory X: Biography & Accomplishments

70. Pope Gregory X: Biography & Accomplishments

There's a lot that goes into the modern papacy, and every bit of it has its own history. In this lesson, we'll talk about Pope Gregory X and explore his contributions to this holy office.

Pope Gregory XI: History & Facts

71. Pope Gregory XI: History & Facts

Every pope leaves his own mark on Church history. Some marks are more visible than others. In this lesson, we'll talk about Pope Gregory XI and explore his impact on history.

Pope Gregory XII: Biography & Accomplishments

72. Pope Gregory XII: Biography & Accomplishments

Who leads the Catholic Church? Well, depending on when you asked this question, you may have actually gotten different answers. In this lesson, we'll examine the life of Pope Gregory XII, who held the papacy in one of its most tumultuous times.

Pope Gregory XIII: Accomplishments & Legacy

73. Pope Gregory XIII: Accomplishments & Legacy

This lesson takes you through the accomplishments of Pope Gregory XIII. You'll learn about his service to the Catholic Church, ascension to the papacy, and his creation of the Gregorian calendar, which is still in use to this day.

Pope Gregory XV: Biography & Accomplishments

74. Pope Gregory XV: Biography & Accomplishments

Not every pope holds papal power for very long, but some don't need to. In this lesson, we'll examine the short reign of Pope Gregory XV and see what he did with the little time he had.

Pope Gregory XVI: Biography & Accomplishments

75. Pope Gregory XVI: Biography & Accomplishments

In this lesson we will learn about the life and legacy of Pope Gregory XVI. We will examine his important accomplishments and we will place his papacy in historical context.

Palmarian Catholic Church: Rules and History

76. Palmarian Catholic Church: Rules and History

The Palmarian Church is one of the more controversial religious bodies in Europe today. In this lesson, we're going to explore the history and ideology behind this institution and examine its relationship with mainstream Christianity.

Meanings of the Seven Deadly Sins

77. Meanings of the Seven Deadly Sins

Many people have heard of the Seven Deadly Sins, but do you actually know what they are? In this lesson, we'll discuss these sins and explore their role in the Catholic faith.

Cultural Anthropology of Religion

78. Cultural Anthropology of Religion

Religion is a complex set of beliefs that are part of culture. Cultural anthropology is the branch of science concerned with cultural beliefs. As such, cultural anthropologists are often interested in religion in a variety of places in the world.

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