Brain Surgeon: Job Description, Salary, Duties and Requirements

Learn about the education and preparation needed to become a brain surgeon. Get a quick view of the requirements as well as details about education and training, job duties and certification to find out if this is the career for you.

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Brain surgeons primarily perform complex surgeries on the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. They must possess a medical degree, complete a neurosurgery residency, and obtain state licensing. Job growth for all surgeons is very good through the year 2024.

Essential Information

Brain surgeons, also known as neuorsurgeons, examine, diagnose and surgically treat disorders of the nervous system. Training to become a brain surgeon requires a 6-7 year neurosurgical residency following four years of medical school, but qualified brain surgeons receive some of the highest salaries of all medical health professionals. This career is physically and intellectually demanding and requires excellent hand dexterity and hand-eye coordination.

Required Education Medical degree
Required Training Neurosurgery residency
Licensure & Certification State medical license required; Optional board certification by the American Board of Neurologic Surgery
Projected Job Growth (2014-2024) 14% (all physicians and surgeons)*
Median Salary (2016) $559,255**

Sources: *U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics; **

Brain Surgeon Job Description and Duties

Neurosurgeons perform surgery on the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves to remove tumors, relieve chronic pain and treat wounds, vascular disorders and diseases such as Parkinson's and epilepsy. They also use surgery to relieve hydrocephalus, the abnormal build-up of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. Brain surgeons may focus on the correction of deformities and treatment of diseases of the spinal cord such as degenerative spine disorder and scoliosis. Other areas of sub-specialization include pediatric neurosurgery and radiosurgery, the targeted use of radiation to treat tumors.

Salary for Brain Surgeons

The median salary for neurosurgeons was $559,255 in 2016, and half of all brain surgeons reported salaries between $421,032-$707,635, according to This is much higher than the mean annual salary of $247,520 for all surgeons reported by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics in May 2015 ( The risks involved in brain surgery lead to relatively high medical malpractice insurance costs for this specialty.

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Duties of a Brain Surgeon

In addition to performing procedures, neurosurgeons oversee and coordinate the efforts of large teams of surgeons and nurses in the operating theater. Neurosurgeons interpret results of diagnostic tests such as magnetic resonance imaging, CT scans and PET scans to diagnose patients.

Techniques of microsurgery - the use of an operating microscope to perform surgery - require excellent hand-eye coordination and concentration. Brain surgeons must be sensitive to the needs of a diverse group of patients afflicted with neural disorders. They also keep up with new discoveries by reading medical journals and attending academic conferences.

Educational Requirements and Training

Before starting residency training, aspiring neurosurgeons must complete four years of undergraduate school followed by four years of medical school. Neurosurgeons then take 6-7 years of neurosurgical residency training. In the first year, commonly called Post Graduate Year One or the internship year, residents undergo training in basic clinical skills in areas such as trauma and critical care followed by 3-6 months of training in clinical neurology. Over the next six years, residents complete a total of at least 42 months training in core clinical neurosurgery.

Residents often spend a year doing neurology research to fulfill program requirements. Several programs also require residents to pass the primary examination of the American Board of Neurological Surgery (ABNS). In their last year, residents typically take on senior or chief resident responsibility. To become a board-licensed neurosurgeon, qualified graduates of accredited neurosurgery programs must complete written and oral exams administered by the ABNS and submit practice data for review.

Brain surgeons save the lives of patients by skillfully performing surgeries of a highly complex nature, such as surgeries to address degenerative spine disorders and scoliosis. They must have a medical degree, years of residency training, state licensing, and sometimes board certification. Brain surgeons earn far more than most surgeons and the median annual salary in January 2016 was $559,255.

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