Agricultural biology is the study of plant and animal life that has been domesticated for production. A variety of jobs exist in this field, including natural science managers, scientific sales representatives and agricultural scientists. A bachelor's degree is the minimum level of education for all three of these careers.
Agricultural biologists strive to effectively manage farm crops and animals. To do this they study pests like insects, birds and small mammals. They also study plants, farm animals and beneficial insects like bees. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's and Purdue University's Living Science website lists many specialties, including agronomist, animal geneticist, animal physiologist, botanist, entomologist, horticulturist and toxicologist. Agricultural biologists may work as basic or applied research scientists, as consultants to businesses and farmers or as food production managers.
|Career||Natural Science Managers||Scientific Sales Representative||Agricultural Scientist|
|Education Requirements||Bachelor's Degree||Bachelor's degree||Bachelor's Degree|
|Projected Job Growth (2014-2024)||3%*||7%*||5%*|
|Mean Annual Salary (2015)||$136,570*||$89,170 (for wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives of technical and scientific products)*||$69,230 (for agricultural and food scientists)*|
Source:'*U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics'
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Jobs in agricultural biology vary in educational requirements and job training. Potential careers may include research and development scientists, agribusiness sales representatives, extension agents, farmers, farm managers and range scientists.
Natural Science Managers
Some agricultural biologists become administrators or managers of research and development programs in industry. For example, research and development programs may focus on food products, agricultural chemicals or farm machinery. These administrators or managers may not actively conduct research, but manage the people involved in the research program.
Individuals with positions as natural science managers typically begin with a bachelor's degree in a natural science and continue on to receive advanced degrees. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reports that job growth is expected to increase 3% between 2014 and 2024 and the mean annual salary for natural science managers was $136,570 in May of 2015.
Technical or Scientific Sales Representatives
Graduates with master's degrees in agricultural biology may become technical or sales representatives for companies that produce fertilizers, pesticides or hybrid plant varieties. These types of careers may require significant travel to meet with farm managers or farming cooperatives to present the available product lines.
Job growth for scientific sales representatives is expected to rise 7% for the decade starting 2014. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that the mean annual salary in 2015 was $89,170 in May of 2015 for technical or scientific sales representatives.
Agricultural researchers, like geneticists, may conduct their research at state universities to find ways to develop new varieties of plants or strains of livestock. Publishing the results of these studies is often an important part of these jobs. Some researchers will also spend time teaching college classes.
The job outlook information listed for agricultural and food scientists states that employment in this field will grow by 5% between 2014 and 2024, which is about as fast as the national average for all jobs. The BLS predicts that many scientists will be retiring in the next 10 years vacating many positions. As of May 2015, food scientists were reported as earning an average income of $69,230 per year, while soil and plant scientists earned an average of $65,980 per year.
Agricultural Biology Requirements
These four-year degree programs are offered in specialties such as animal science, agronomy, plant science, poultry science, dairy science or fisheries. Students interested in plant sciences may study crop nutrition, plant pathology, entomology and similar courses. Students interested in animal sciences may study anatomy, animal nutrition, physiology and other courses related to animal care and production.
Master's degree programs may be focused on a single agricultural biology subspecialty, like entomology, or a interdisciplinary focus that includes two or more subspecialties, like plant pathology and weed science. Candidates for a master's degree typically must have completed a bachelor's degree program first. The master's degree program usually requires the completion of at least 30 semester hours of classes. Most of these must be at the graduate level. A thesis may also be required, and some programs may include fieldwork requirements.
Candidates prepare a course of study with their graduate committee that includes advanced courses and fieldwork. The time needed to complete this degree program varies for each student. Proficiency in a foreign language or a research tool like statistics is also required. Most doctoral candidates must complete a dissertation and examinations before the degree is conferred.
Competition for employment will be toughest for natural science managers, due to the slow rate of growth and the desirable salary attached to the position. Sales representative positions will also have a large number of applicants, although competition might be ameliorated by the steady rate of growth. Agricultural and food scientists can also expect a steady rate of growth, as well as a higher retirement rate.