What Does a Forensic Scientist Do?
Television and movies may portray forensic science as merely a part of murder investigations. However, it's a broad field applied to numerous facets of the justice system. Forensic scientists may specialize in a wide range of scientific disciplines and their findings are often used in investigations and trials for both the prosecution and defense of criminals. Forensic scientists are responsible for collecting evidence from crime scenes and analyzing it scientifically in order to determine what happened and who committed a crime. Often, their analyses of evidence can be used in a court of law. However, this field is distinct from crime scene investigation. There are many different specialized jobs within the field of forensic science. These include fingerprint technician, evidence technician, autopsy specialist, and forensic analyst. Let's take a look at the jobs available in forensics, and how to get into forensic science.
Forensic Science vs. Crime Scene Investigation
|Forensic Science||Crime Scene Investigation|
|Education Level||Bachelor's Degree||Bachelor's Degree|
|Primary Role||Analyzing evidence||Collecting evidence|
|Job Location||Crime scenes and laboratories||Primarily crime scenes|
|Degree Level||Bachelor's degree|
|Degree Field(s)||Forensic science, criminology, or related field|
|Licensure/Certification||Voluntary certification available|
|Experience||Field experience required for certification|
|Key Skills||Problem-solving, analytical, investigative, research, organization, and communications skills; persistence and patience|
|Job Outlook (2018-2028)||18% growth|
|Median Annual Salary (2018)||$62,490|
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Steps to Become a Forensic Scientist
You may have wondered how to get into forensics. Let's take a look at the steps it takes to get a job in forensics.
Step 1: Choose a Discipline
Your first step when considering how to get a job in forensic science is to choose a discipline. Forensic science is a broad field, integrating various disciplines of science in the pursuit of civil justice. Professionals in this field may specialize in one of several forensic science disciplines, including toxicology, pathology, physical anthropology, behavioral science and general forensics, among other specialties.
Step 2: Earn a Bachelor's Degree
Step 2 is to earn a bachelor's degree. You must have at least bachelor's degrees to find employment in this occupation. Depending on the chosen discipline, students may focus their studies on the natural or biological sciences. For example, students interested in a career in toxicology may focus on microbiology, while those looking to begin a career in forensic ballistics may choose to focus on physics.
You may be wondering how to get a degree in forensic science, since the field is so broad. Some colleges and universities offer Bachelor of Science in Forensic Science programs. Employing classroom and laboratory instruction, these 4-year degree programs combine various sciences applicable to forensic science studies. The combination of different learning environments will help teach you how to work in forensics.
Forensic science courses:
- Human anatomy
- Organic chemistry
- Evidence analysis
- Forensic anthropology
- Public speaking
Step 3: Consider an Advanced Degree
According to the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, some disciplines require only bachelor's degrees, while others may require advanced degrees in applicable fields of science or medicine. So the third step is to consider an advanced degree. Forensic anthropologists typically have Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degrees in anthropology with focuses on human osteology and anatomy. Forensic odontologists must have at least Doctor of Dental Science (DDS) degrees. Forensic pathologists must obtain medical licensure from the American Board of Pathology, which requires four years of medical school and five years of combined residency and fellowship training.
Step 4: Gain Experience
Step 4 is to gain experience. Forensic scientists typically work in laboratories, hospitals, morgues, government facilities and police departments. Specific job duties vary according to discipline, but forensic scientists generally conduct scientific investigations and analyze findings to reveal details about occurrences, such as deaths, car accidents, and non-violent crimes. They work closely beside crime scene investigators, officers, deputies, and attorneys. Forensic scientists may serve as expert witnesses in criminal trials, where they present their findings to juries and judges.
According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the forensic science job outlook projected a 14% growth from 2019-2029 and the average annual salary was $59,150.
Step 5: Obtain Certification
The last step is to obtain certification. Earning a voluntary professional certification may help you demonstrate your competence in your specialty. The American Board of Criminalistics (ABC) offers two levels of certification for practicing forensic scientists. Candidates for diplomate certification must hold bachelor's degrees in an applicable science, have two years of experience in criminology and pass a 220-question certification examination. Candidates for fellow certification must meet all diplomate requirements, complete a proficiency testing program and pass a comprehensive exam.