Psychiatric Nurse Practitioners
Psychiatric nurse practitioners, or mental health nurse practitioners, are advanced practice nurses who serve as primary care mental health providers. They diagnose and treat patients with mental illnesses and can also serve as educators or counselors for medical patients and their families. They may collaborate with doctors or psychiatrists, but they generally don't have to work under supervision.
Registered nurses, including psychiatric nurse practitioners, usually work full-time, though their schedules may vary widely. Nurses can be scheduled for 8- to 12-hour shifts and work evenings, nights, and/or weekends. Psychiatric nurse practitioners work in medical care settings, including hospitals, clinics, and mental health in-patient centers. As nurses, they may be exposed to patients with infectious diseases and, as psychiatric caregivers, they are at risk for injury when treating patients who may become violent or emotionally agitated. Although working with such clients can be very rewarding, it can also be very emotionally taxing. Therefore, it's important that individuals who choose this career path are aware of the strong probability of bringing their work home.
|Degree Level||Master's degree (minimum); Many pursue a Doctor of Nurse Practice (DNP) or Ph.D.|
|Degree Field(s)||Bachelor's degree in nursing, master's degree as a psychiatric nurse practitioner|
|Certification/Experience/Licensure||Before nurses can seek nurse practitioner certification and licensure, they must hold a valid license as a registered nurse; the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) certifies psychiatric and mental health nurse practitioners; work experience is required as a prerequisite for licensure, which is required in every state|
|Key Skills||Social awareness and perceptiveness, problem-solving abilities, the ability to monitor and assess patients, sensitivity, reasoning and critical thinking skills, compassion, basic word processing, data entry and medical software skills, and the ability to use medical equipment, such as EKG machines, surgical lasers, suction kits, defibrillators, and vision charts|
|Salary (2015)||Annual median salary for all nurse practitioners was $104,740|
Sources: Graduate degree programs, State nursing boards, Psychiatric nurse practitioner degree programs, American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), ONET OnLine.
Sources: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics- Occupational Employment Statistics- Nurse Practitioners
Step 1: Bachelor's Degree
The first step toward becoming a psychiatric nurse practitioner is to obtain a bachelor's degree. Aspiring psychiatric nurse practitioners must meet the preliminary education and training requirements for becoming a registered nurse (RN). This is generally done by obtaining a Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree (BSN). Courses in nursing degree programs generally include pharmacology and pathophysiology basics, anatomy and physiology, patient health assessment, and nursing throughout all life stages. Student nurses also perform supervised clinical rotations as part of their graduation requirements.
Complete electives in psychology and psychiatric medicine. Student nurses who plan to pursue psychiatric nursing should choose electives that feature this area of practice to acquaint them with common psychological illnesses, their diagnostics, and treatment protocols.
Step 2: RN Licensure & Experience
The second step towards becoming a psychiatric nurse practitioner is to obtain state licensure and gain experience as an RN. All states require nurses to be licensed before practicing. Most states require candidates to pass the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN) exam, administered by the National Council of State Boards of Nursing. There may also be additional state nursing board licensure requirements. Nurses who are licensed in one state may apply for license by endorsement in another state.
Most psychiatric nurse practitioner graduate degree programs require applicants to have one to two years of clinical psychiatric nursing experience as an RN before considering them for enrollment. Nurses can gain experience through a wide variety of specialties such as geriatrics, inpatient mental health facilities, or in/outpatient practice with families, adults, or children.
Verify enrollment prerequisites. Candidates should check with the school they plan to attend to the prerequisites for enrollment. This enables them to select work opportunities that meet the admissions criteria for a particular university.
Step 3: Graduate Degree
The third step towards becoming a psychiatric nurse practitioner is to earn a graduate degree. Master's degree programs for psychiatric nurse practitioners generally take one-and-a-half to three years to complete, depending on the school. Students develop psychotherapy skills and learn therapeutic approaches, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, group therapy, and other therapeutic modalities. Students also learn about all aspects of the brain as it affects mental health, as well as pharmacotherapeutics, biopsychosocial assessment, and diagnostic techniques. It's important to enroll in an accredited program, because this ensures that you can meet the educational portion of licensure and certification requirements.
Obtain a DNP or Ph.D. Although a doctorate level degree is not necessarily a requirement, many aspiring nurse practitioners choose to obtain one as it increases their employment prospects, especially for individuals interested in conducting research. According to the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN), there is a burgeoning need for more DNPs given the shortages in health care providers who are comparable to medical doctors in their training and education.
Step 4: Practitioner Certification
The fourth step towards becoming a psychiatric nurse practitioner is to earn certification as a nurse practitioner. After obtaining a graduate degree, psychiatric nurse practitioners must earn certification by passing an exam administered by ANCC. The exam tests students' knowledge of practitioner and patient relationships, patient assessment, disease prevention, and clinical management. Nurse practitioners who are interested in psychiatry can choose to be ANCC-certified in either adult or family psychiatric and mental health. Once the candidate passes the exam, the nurse practitioner will receive his or her Family Psychiatric Mental-Health Nurse Practitioner-Board Certified or Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse Practitioner-Board Certified designation (PMHNP-BC).
Maintain certification. To maintain PMHNP-BC certification, every five years a psychiatric nurse practitioner must fulfill a minimum of 75 continuing education hours from an accredited provider and perform other specified demonstrations of competence and expertise that may include publication, research, or presentations to academic courses. The nurse practitioner is also required to complete 1,000 practice hours and to have maintained his or her RN license in good standing. Recertification requirements for RN licenses vary from state to state.
Step 5: Practitioner License
The fifth step toward become a psychiatric nurse practitioner is to obtain licensure as a nurse practitioner. Nurse practitioners must also be licensed by the state nursing board beyond their RN licenses. General requirements include having a valid RN license, graduating from an approved nurse practitioner master's degree program, and holding valid certification. Additional licensure requirements and renewal requirements vary by state.
The steps toward becoming a psychiatric nurse practitioner include earning a bachelor's degree, obtaining licensure as an RN, gaining work experience as an RN, earning a graduate degree, earning certification as a nurse practitioner, and obtaining licensure as a nurse practitioner.