Career Options that Require Advanced Educational Training
There are many jobs across numerous job fields that require some kind of advanced educational training. This training may come in the form of a master's degree, doctorate or specialized graduate-level degree. Learn about a small sampling of careers in different fields that require advanced educational training below.
|Job Title||Median Salary (2016)*||Job Growth (2016-2026)*|
|Physicians and Surgeons||Equal or greater than $208,000||15%|
|Physicists and Astronomers||$114,870||14%|
|Computer and Information Research Scientists||$111,840||19%|
|Mathematicians and Statisticians||$81,950||33%|
Source: *U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
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Career Information for Jobs that Require Advanced Educational Training
Physicians and Surgeons
Physicians and surgeons diagnose and treat a wide range of illnesses, injuries and other medical conditions in human patients. In addition to treating various conditions with medicine and other treatments, physicians help patients through preventative healthcare and discussing health topics like diet, exercise and hygiene. Surgeons typically treat patients by performing a particular type of surgery aimed at fixing broken bones or torn tissues, removing disease or correcting a deformity. These professionals undergo intense educational training that begins with 4 years of undergraduate study, followed by 4 years of medical school and then a residency that can last anywhere from 3 to 7 years. They also need a medical license.
Veterinarians perform very similar job duties to physicians and surgeons, but with animal patients. They diagnose and treat various conditions in dogs, cats, livestock and other animals and may offer advice on animal care and medicine to the animal's owner. Veterinarians are able to prescribe medication, perform surgery and euthanize animals if needed. After their undergraduate studies, they must complete 4 years of veterinary school to earn a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree and must then obtain a state license.
Postsecondary teachers educate students beyond the high school level in any number of subjects at universities and other postsecondary institutions. They are responsible for creating their own curriculum for each course that they teach, as well as any assignments and exams that they need. Depending on the institution, these educators may have additional responsibilities, such as supervising graduate students, conducting independent research and/or serving on various committees for their department or institution. Most postsecondary teachers need a Ph.D. and work experience in their particular field of expertise, but some smaller institutions or subject areas may only require their teachers to have a master's degree.
Physicists and Astronomers
Through complex research experiments, physicists and astronomers study energy and matter and how they interact. Their work often requires the use of high-tech equipment like telescopes and lasers for testing various theories in the field. After collecting data, they analyze it with math, computer models and other techniques and publish their findings in scientific papers and reports. Although some entry-level jobs in the government only require a bachelor's degree, most physicists and astronomers must have a Ph.D. in their respective field to conduct independent research or work in academia.
Computer and Information Research Scientists
Computer and information research scientists solve real-world problems in a variety of job fields by designing and inventing new computing technology. They may also find new uses for current technology, but they spend most of their time improving how people work with computers by developing and testing new software. They do this by designing and performing experiments, analyzing their results and then publishing their work in scientific articles. Most of these scientists need a master's degree in computer science or a closely related field that usually takes 2 to 3 years to complete, but some positions are available for those with a bachelor's degree.
Political scientists study various factors of political systems by collecting and analyzing data and testing political theories. They may examine policies, political trends, the development of political systems and more to study the effects of these factors on governments and people, as well as trying to predict future trends. They usually present their results in papers or presentations. Political scientists must have a master's or doctoral degree in political science or a related field.
Mathematicians and Statisticians
Mathematicians and statisticians use math to try and solve problems in a wide range of job fields. Using complex mathematical techniques, they collect and analyze data obtained from experiments or surveys to solve issues in business, healthcare, science and other areas. Some of these professionals may specialize in developing new math theories and rules. Jobs are available for those with a bachelor's or master's degree, but the private industry typically requires a master's or doctoral degree in the field.