How Do I Become a Registered Nurse?

Sep 10, 2019

Qualifying as a registered nurse requires a significant amount of preparation, education and practical experience. Get a quick view of the requirements as well as details about degree programs, job duties and licensure to find out if this is the career for you.

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Registered nurses need a diploma, associate's degree or bachelor's degree in nursing, which calls for classroom training and clinical practice. They must meet state standards for licensing and pass a national certification test. Keep reading to learn more about education and training requirements as well as career information.

Essential Information

Individuals looking to become registered nurses (RNs) can do so through education, clinical experience and licensing. RNs work in healthcare settings, treating patients and educating the public on health-related topics, such as illness, injuries, nutrition, recovery and exercise. Duties typically include administering treatments, observing patients, and keeping medical records updated.

Required Education Bachelor's or associate's program in nursing
Other Requirements State licensure required
Projected Job Growth 12% from 2018 to 2028* (for registered nurses)
Average Salary (2018) $75,510 annually* (for registered nurses)

Source *U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

Step 1: Complete a Nursing Program

Students begin their paths to becoming RNs by enrolling in diploma, associate degree or bachelor's degree programs. Diploma and associate degree programs generally take 2-3 years to complete, while bachelor's degree programs typically take four. Coursework covers dispensing pharmaceuticals and preparation for situations nurses face in clinical settings. Course topics can include:

  • Nursing leadership and management
  • Anatomy
  • Biology
  • Informatics
  • Health assessment

Step 2: Gain Clinical Experience

Students must complete a certain number of hours of clinical work to graduate from a nursing program and qualify for state licensure. Students train in live clinical settings, such as health centers or hospitals, under the guidance of experienced nursing faculty. They learn to use specialized equipment and observe procedures for reacting to different types of patients and situations. Students enrolled in bachelor's degree programs typically gain more clinical experience in non-hospital settings than do students enrolled in associate degree or diploma programs.

Step 3: Get Licensed

All states require graduates to earn a license in order to legally work as a registered nurse. Candidates must pass the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN), which is administered by the National Council of State Boards of Nursing. To qualify for the computer-adaptive exam, candidates must have completed an approved nursing program. States might also require additional jurisdictional testing or other licensure requirements, such as background checks or health screenings.

Step 4: Fulfill Continuing Education Requirements

Many states require RNs to complete continuing education in order to keep their nursing licenses active. The exact number of hours varies by state. Some possible options that earn continuing education credit include professional certification in a nursing field, medical research projects, college-level classes or accredited online courses. State nursing boards maintain a list of acceptable courses, programs and activities.

Step 5: Advance A Career

Becoming an RN can provide many pathways for career advancement with additional training, education and experience. Earning a Bachelor of Science in Nursing, specialty certificate or Master of Science in Nursing can prepare experienced RNs for management, consulting, teaching or research positions, as well as numerous clinical specializations within the nursing profession. Nurses can choose to specialize in areas such as pediatric or geriatric nursing through additional education or optional certification. RNs can also become advanced practice nurses, such as clinical nurse specialists or nurse practitioners.

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) has predicted that from 2018-2028, employment will increase 12% for RNs and 28% for nurse practitioners. In 2018, the BLS indicated that RNs earned an average of $75,510 per year and nurse practitioners averaged $110,030.

A career as a registered nursing requires completing an accredited diploma or degree program as well as passing an exam. Graduate degrees and experience can lead to specialized nursing positions. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reports growth for registered nurses far surpasses the job market as a whole.

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