How to Become a School Principal: Step-by-Step Guide

Jul 08, 2019

Learn how to become a school principal. Research the job description, education, licensing, and other principal requirements to determine whether this is the right career for you.

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Should I Become a School Principal?

School principals serve as the leaders and supervisors of schools. They manage and assist teachers and all other staff. They also oversee the staff's professional development, the school budget, student disciplinary matters, and interact with the public as a representative of their school. Evening work is often required, and principals work year-round, as compared to teachers, who often have several months of vacation in the summers. Becoming this type of education administrator requires passion for higher education and strong leadership skills.

Below is an overview of the licensure and experience this career requires, along with the degree you need to be a principal.

Principal Qualifications and Requirements

Degree Level Bachelor's degree and master's degree
Degree Field Educational leadership or educational administration
Licensure and/or Certification State-specific teacher certification and principal certification required, some states require school administrator certification
Experience Student teaching internship required; employers may prefer teacher experience
Key Skills Decision-making, critical thinking, communication, leadership, basic computer skills, and an understanding of school fire and alarm systems and 2-way radios
Salary (2018) $95,310 (median annual salary for school principals)

Sources: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, O*NET OnLine.

How to Become an Elementary School or High School Principal

Step 1: Earn a Bachelor's Degree

School principals usually begin their careers serving as teachers, which generally requires a bachelor's degree in education or a specific subject field, such as English or math. Many colleges and universities offer degree programs in elementary, secondary, and special education, which typically takes four to five years to complete. Coursework is structured according to the grade levels and subjects that one is planning to teach. Most degree programs feature classes in educational philosophy, classroom management, and working with diverse students. In order to become certified, education majors are also commonly expected to fulfill a student teaching internship during the course of their bachelor's degree program.

Success Tip

Take employment as a substitute teacher during college. Some states let aspiring teachers work as substitutes while still attending college. Those interested in becoming substitutes should get in touch with their state board of education; special permits or licenses may be available. Working as a substitute teacher offers the chance to gain experience in the classroom and improve the skills required to be successful as a teacher, such as effective communication and classroom management. Additionally, working as a substitute teacher permits future teachers to obtain knowledge from seasoned professionals.

Step 2: Get a Teaching Certificate

All states require public school teachers to be licensed before they can start teaching. Licensing requirements vary by state, but most licensing boards require candidates to complete a bachelor's degree and a supervised internship that includes classroom teaching. Candidates must also frequently pass a state licensing exam that tests general teaching skills, methods, and subject knowledge. Aside from a bachelor's degree and a student teaching internship, certification requirements for teacher vary by state.

Step 3: Gain Work Experience

Before advancing into school administration positions, many principals gain motivational, leadership and communication skills as teachers. Acquiring work experience in the education field supplies aspiring principals with the basis to comprehend the teaching field, the teacher's responsibilities, and classroom practice. Additionally, it's typical for states to expect a couple of years of teaching experience to acquire licensure as a principal. The years of experience required varies by state, so individuals should check with the state to find out exact requirements.

Step 4: Complete a Graduate Degree

Teachers prepare for advancement into school principal positions by earning a master's or doctoral degree in education leadership or educational administration. Master's degree programs in education administration typically take two years to complete and may require students to hold a teaching license prior to enrollment. Courses may include instruction supervision, curriculum development, administrative leadership, school law, and school finance. Students may be required to complete internships and capstone projects in order to graduate.

Step 5: Obtain a Specialist License

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the majority of states require school principals to have a school administrator license. To be eligible for licensure, most states require applicants to hold graduate degrees along with sitting for a state licensing exam. Work experience and mentoring experience may also be necessary to meet school administrator licensing eligibility. Specifications vary by location, but many states permit an individual to add a principal endorsement to a current teaching license.

School principals are required to hold a bachelor's degree and a master's degree in educational leadership or administration, as well as having teaching experience, certifications, and licenses.

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