A nurse practitioner, who provides both preventative and treatment services, is required to have advanced nursing training as well as both certification and licensure. Nurse practitioner could be an excellent career choice for someone interested in patient care as job growth in the coming decade is predicted to be very strong. Read on to learn about the specific educational requirements, and the several types of certifications available.
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Licensure and certification as a nurse practitioner (NP) demonstrate advanced education and clinical training. Together, they allow the NP to provide preventive and treatment services. These two credentials are tied together for NPs; they must be licensed in order to practice, and certification is sometimes a requirement for earning a license.
To qualify for licensure and certification, aspiring nurse practitioners must become registered nurses (RNs) and then take advanced training. Certification is granted by national organizations in specialty areas of nursing practice. NP licensure is granted by individual states, generally by the Board of Nursing for the state in which they will practice. Requirements for license renewal also vary by state.
|Required Education||In addition to being a registered nurse (RN), nurse practitioners must have a post-graduate degree from an accredited program.|
|Required Experience||Varies by state. Some states may require clinical experience before licensing.|
|Specialization Options||Certification is available in specialties such as gerontology, family nurse practice and adult nurse practice.|
|Exam Requirements||Each state administers its own examination and license renewal requirements; various specialty boards administer the certification exams.|
|Projected Job Growth (2014-2024)*||31% for nurse anesthetists, nurse midwives, and nurse practitioners|
|Median Salary (2015)*||$98,190 for nurse practitioners|
Source: *U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Education Requirements for Nurse Practitioners
Nurse practitioners (NP) must have a master's degree, a post-master's certificate or a doctoral degree in nursing from an accredited program. Most degree programs involve completing clinical work and courses in health assessment and promotion, pharmacology, diagnosis and disease prevention.
Most students choose a specialty area and incorporate the relevant classes into their degree program to eventually become certified in an advanced practice specialty. Students are encouraged to select their specialty prior to starting graduate school and can pick from many different clinical areas, such as acute care, adult care, pediatrics, geriatrics, women's health and critical care, among others.
According to the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, admission requirements for graduate nursing programs include a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN), a registered nurse (RN) license and a minimum score on the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) or the Miller Analogies Test (MAT). Applicants must also have a minimum amount of prior clinical experience.
To qualify for licensure, aspiring NPs must first complete the education and training requirements to become an RN in their state. This involves earning an associate degree, a bachelor's degree or a diploma from an accredited nursing program. Nursing programs are accredited by the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE) or by the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission (NLNAC).
Each state's Board of Nursing specifies licensure requirements. In all states, RNs must pass the National Council Licensure Examination, or the NCLEX-RN. This is a standardized exam used to qualify candidates for entry-level nursing practice.
RNs who want to continue their education to become a NP must first earn a BSN. RNs who have a diploma or associate's degree (ADN) in nursing must upgrade their education by taking a diploma- or ADN-BSN bridge program.
There is no licensure exam for nurse practitioners similar to NCLEX-PN for practical nurses or NCLEX-RN for registered nurses. Licensure laws differ depending on the state. Generally, NPs are licensed by the Board of Nursing for the state in which they will practice. A state may use NP certification exams as a means of determining competency of a candidate. A NP, after passing certification exam, must apply to his or her state in order to be licensed. There may be additional requirements. They then can work as a NP under the scope of practice (regulations and rules) of their state.
A NP may obtain licensure to prescribe drugs or medication. Again, requirement for licensure or prescriptive authority varies by state. For example, for the state of Indiana, NPs must have a master's degree and have taken certain courses like advanced physical assessment or pharmacology. Licenses must be renewed at certain intervals, such as every three years.
After completing an advanced nursing degree program, graduates are eligible to register for a national certification examination in their specialty to become a certified NP. The two largest certifying boards are the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners (AANP) and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC). The AANP Certification Program offers national certification examinations for NPs wanting to work as certified adult, gerontology or family nurse practitioners. The ANCC offers specialty certification examinations in many areas.
Eligibility requirements for certification can vary by specialty, and candidates should check the specific requirements for certification in their particular field. In addition to having a graduate degree in nursing, applicants generally must hold a current, active RN license in their state of practice. They also must have a minimum of 500 supervised clinical hours in their nurse practitioner specialty to be eligible, according to the ANCC.
The BLS reports that nurse practitioners earned a median salary of $98,190 in 2015, and the predicted job growth in this field is 31% from 2014-2024, which is much faster than average for all jobs. The job involves direct patient care, and because of the advanced clinical knowledge required, nurse practitioners often have the autonomy to make both treatment and preventative decisions.