# AP Physics 2 Skills Practice

Skills available for AP Physics 2 Skills Practice
Fluids
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Fluid Systems & Density
• How to Identify Fluid Systems
• How to Identify Appropriate Regions of Fluids as Separate Systems
• How to Calculate Density of a Liquid Substance
• How to Calculate Density of a Gaseous Substance
Pressure and Forces in Fluids
• How to Calculate Pressure on a Solid 2D Surface due to a Force
• How to Calculate Pressure on a Solid Object in the Atmosphere
• How to Calculate Pressure on a Solid Object Submerged in Water
• How to Compare Pressure Exerted by the Same Force on Different Areas
• How to Identify Newton's Third Law Force Pairs in Fluids
• How to Use Newton's Third Law to Find an Unknown Force Exerted on or by a Fluid
• How to Find the Gauge Pressure in a Constant Density Fluid at a Certain Depth
• How to Find the Absolute Pressure in a Constant Density Fluid at a Certain Depth
• How to Calculate the Density of a Fluid from a Linear Pressure Versus Depth Plot
• How to Estimate a Trend of Variable Fluid Density from a Non-Linear Pressure vs. Depth Plot
• How to Find the Force Exerted by a Hydraulic Press
• How to Find the Area Needed to Design a Hydraulic Press to Generate a Specific Force
• How to Find the Force of a Fluid on a Container Wall Using Average Pressure
• How to Draw a Free Body Diagram for an Infinitesimal Layer of Fluid at Equilibrium
Buoyancy
• How to Use Archimedes' Principle to Find the Buoyant Force on a Partially Submerged Object
• How to Find the Magnitude of the Buoyant Force on an Object Using the Pressure Difference
• How to Draw a Free Body Diagram for a Fully Submerged Object Based on its Density
• How to Determine the Direction of Acceleration of a Fully Submerged Object based on its Density.
Conservation of Energy in Fluid Flow
• Finding the Work Exerted on a Segment of Flowing Fluid in a Tube by the Adjacent Segment
• How to Use Bernoulli's Equation to Find a Resting Fluids Pressure at a Given Depth
• How to Use Bernoulli's Equation to Calculate a Velocity for Fluid Exposed to Atmosphere
• How to Use Bernoulli's Equation to Calculate a Velocity for Fluid inside a Pipe
• How to Use Bernoulli's Equation to Calculate a Velocity for Fluid inside a Pipe
• How to Use Bernoulli's Equation to Find the Height a Fluid can Reach
Conservation of Mass Flow Rate in Fluids
• How to Calculate a Velocity Using the Equation of Continuity
• How to Calculate an Area Using the Equation of Continuity
• How to Find the Change in Fluid Velocity Due to a Change in Pipe Diameter
• How to Find a Fluid Flow Rate Using a Venturi Tube Experiment
Thermodynamics
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Pressure, Thermal Equilibrium, and the Ideal Gas Law
• How to Identify a Thermodynamic System
• How to Identify Whether Two Systems are in Thermal Equilibrium with One Another
• How to Find the Force Exerted by Gas Molecules on Container Walls
• How to Calculate the Average Kinetic Energy of Molecules in Gas at a Certain Temperature
• How to Calculate the Root Mean Square Speed of Molecules in Gas at a Certain Temperature
• How to Calculate the Number of Moles of Gas Using the Ideal Gas Law
• How to Calculate a Final Pressure Using the Ideal Gas Law Equivalency
• How to Calculate a Final Temperature Using the Ideal Gas Law Equivalency
• How to Use the Ideal Gas Law to Calculate a Change in Volume
• How to Identify Newton's Third Law Force Pairs in a Thermodynamic System
Free-Body Diagrams in Thermodynamics
• Draw a Free Body Diagram for the Wall of a Sealed Container of Gas
• How to Draw a Free Body Diagram for a Piston
• How to Use Newtons Second Law to Find the Pressure of a Gas Pushing up on a Piston
• How to Find the Direction of Acceleration of a Piston
• How to Identify the Contact Forces Acting on a Piston
Internal Energy and Energy Transfer
• How to Identify Whether Conduction, Convection, or Radiation is Occurring in a System
• How to Determine the Direction of Heat Flow Between Two Systems
• How to Calculate the Internal Energy of a Thermodynamic System
• How to Calculate the Work Done on a Gas Algebraically
• How to Find the Change in Volume Caused by Work Done on a Gas
• How to Calculate the Pressure of a Gas Based on the Observed Volume Change from Known Work Done
• How to Calculate the Work Done on a Gas Graphically
• How to Draw an Isovolumetric Process on a Pressure-Volume Diagram
• How to Draw an Isobaric Process on a Pressure-Volume Diagram
• How to Distinguish Between an Isothermal & Adiabatic Process on a Pressure-Volume Diagram
• Using the First Law of Thermodynamics to Calculate Change in Internal Energy
• How to Use the 1st Law of Thermodynamics to Find Heat Transferred in an Isobaric Process
• How to Use the 1st Law of Thermodynamics to Find Work done in an Adiabatic Process
• How to Use the 1st Law of Thermodynamics to Find Heat Transferred in an Isovolumetric Process
• Using the First Law of Thermodynamics to Calculate Change in Volume
• How to Calculate Heat Transfer in an Isobaric Process
• How to Calculate Change in Pressure in an Adiabatic Process
• How to Calculate Work Done by an Isothermal Process
• How to Calculate the Work Done by a Heat Engine
• How to Calculate the Efficiency of a Heat Engine
• How to Calculate the Power Exerted by a Heat Engine
Collisions, Conductivity, and Entropy
• How to Solve for the Final Velocity of an Elastic 2D Collision
• How to Solve for the Final Velocity of a Perfectly Inelastic 2D Collision
• How to Find the Heat per Unit Time Transferred Between Two Systems via Conduction
• How to Find the Thermal Conductivity of a Material Connecting Two Systems Using the Law of Thermal Conduction
• How to Compare the Changes of Entropy for Different Processes on a Pressure-Volume Diagram
Electric Force, Field, and Potential
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Electric Charge
• How to Calculate Total Charge in Coulombs of an Arrangement of Protons and Electrons
• How to Calculate the Total Charge in Coulombs of an Ion
• How to Determine the Number of Electrons on an Object Given its Net Charge in Coulombs
• How to Find the Current in a Conductor with a Given Charge & Time Interval
• How to Determine Whether Two Objects will Repel or Attract Based on their Charges
• How to Calculate the Charge of a System After Charging by Friction
• Finding the Orientation of Charge Separation Induced in a System from an External Charge
Charge Distribution
• How to Predict the Motion of Objects that Interact via Friction
• How to Predict the Motion of Charges on Objects that Interact with Conduction
• How to Predict the Motion of Objects that Interact via Induction
• How to Determine the Charge Distribution of an Object From its Motion in the Presence of Another Charged Object
• How to Determine Whether an Object is an Insulator or Conductor Based on its Charge Distribution
• How to Determine the Charge Distribution of a Conductor Given its Total Charge
Electric Forces
• How to Calculate how the Coulomb Constant Would Change if the Universe had a Different Permittivity of Free Space
• How to Identify Newton's Third Law Force Pairs in Configurations of Charged Particles
• How to Qualitatively Determine the Direction of Net Force on a Charged Particle Due to a Configuration of Two Other Charged Particles in 2D
• How to use Coulomb's Law to Find the Electric Force on a Particle at Rest
• How to Use Newton's Second Law to Find the Electric Force on a Particle of Known Acceleration
• Calculating the Electric Force between Two Charges Only
• Calculating an Electric Force between Three Charges in 1D
• Calculating an Electric Force between Three Charges in 2D
• How to Compare Electric Forces Between Objects at the Same Separation with Different Charges
• How to Compare Electric Forces of the Same Charged Objects at Different Distances
• How to Use Experimental Data of Electric Force versus Distance to Find an Unknown Charge
• How to Determine Whether Gravitational or Electromagnetic Forces Dominate Between 2 Objects of Known Charge & Mass
Electric Charges and Fields
• How to Draw a Vector Field for the Gravitational Force Around Systems of Massive Objects
• How to Calculate the Force Produced by an Electric Field
• Calculating the Electric Field Produced by a Charge
• Calculating the Electric Field Produced by Multiple Charges
• How to Draw Electric Field Lines for Two Particles with Equal Opposite Charges
• How to Draw Electric Field Lines for Two Particles with Equal Same Charges
• How to Draw Electric Field Lines for Two Particles with Different Magnitude Charges
• How to Draw the Electric Field Around a Spherically Symmetric Configuration of Several Point Charges
• How to Draw the Electric Field Between Uniformly Charged Parallel Plates
• How to Calculate the Potential Difference between Two Points
• How to Calculate the Potential Difference from within an Electric Field
• How to Calculate the Strength of an Electric Field Inside a Parallel Plate Capacitor with Known Voltage Difference & Plate Separation
• How to Calculate the Strength of an Electric Field Inside a Parallel Plate Capacitor Given the Charge & Area of Each Plate
• How to Determine the Motion of a Charged Particle Between Parallel Plates
• How to Draw Isolines for a Given Electric Field Map
Conservation of Electric Energy
• How to Calculate the Electric Energy Between Parallel Plates of a Capacitor
• How to Calculate the Work Done on a Point Charge to Move it Through an Electric Field
• How to Use Conservation of Energy to Determine the Charge of an Object in an Electric Field
• How to Determine the Power Generated by Moving Charged Objects
Electric Circuits
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Resistance and Capacitance
• How to Find the Number of Electrons that Pass Through a Conductor with a Known Current in Some Time Interval
• How to Calculate Resistance Using Resistivity
• How to Find the Best Gauge of Wire to Use to Achieve a Desired Resistance in Some Length of Conductor with Known Resistivity
• How to Compare the Resistances of Resistors Made from Different Lengths of the Same Material
• How to Compare the Resistances of Resistors Made with Different Cross-sectional Areas of the Same Material & Length
• How to Compare Capacitances of Parallel Plate Capacitors with Different Plate Areas
• How to Compare Capacitances of Parallel Plate Capacitors with Different Separations Between Plates
• How to Calculate the Capacitance of a Parallel Plate Capacitor Given its Geometry
• How to Find the Current in a Resistor Using the Potential Difference Across it
• How to Find the Magnitude of Charge on a Capacitor's Parallel Plates Using the Potential Difference
• How to Calculate the Equivalent Resistance In a Series Circuit
• How to Calculate the Equivalent Resistance In a Parallel Circuit
• How to Find the Total Resistance of Resistors in Series & Parallel Orientations
• How to Calculate the Equivalent Capacitance of a Circuit in Parallel
• How to Calculate the Equivalent Capacitance of a Circuit in Series
• How to Find the Total Capacitance of Capacitors in Series & Parallel Orientations
• How to Reduce a Circuit of Resistors and Capacitors to its Equivalent with the Minimum Number of Resistors and Capacitors
• How to Determine the Relative Voltage Difference Across Equal Resistors
• How to Determine the Voltage Difference Across Equal Resistors in Parallel
• How to Use a Graph of Voltage Versus Current to Determine Whether a Circuit Element is Ohmic
Kirchhoff's Loop Rule
• How to Use Kirchhoff's Loop Rule to Find the Voltage Drop of One of Two Different Resistors in Series
• How to Use Kirchhoff's Junction Rule to Find the Relative Current Between Different Resistors in Parallel
• Writing Kirchoff's Loop Rule Equations for a Circuit with Two or More Closed Loops
• Determining the Rate of Energy Transfer through a Resistor
Kirchhoff's Junction Rule and the Conservation of Electric Charge
• Writing Kirchhoff's Junction Rule Equations for a Circuit with Resistors and Two or More Closed Loops
• Describing Relative Voltages & Currents in an RC Circuit Immediately after a Switch is Closed after Being Open for a Long Time
• Describing Relative Voltages & Currents in an RC Circuit in Steady-State after a Switch Has been Closed for a Long Time
• Describing Relative Voltages & Currents in an RC Circuit Immediately after a Switch is Opened after Being Closed for a Long Time
• Describing Relative Voltages & Currents in an RC Circuit in Steady-State after a Switch Has been Open for a Long Time
• Using Kirchhoff's Junction Rule to Solve for a Voltage Drop across a Circuit Element
Magnetism and Electromagnetic Induction
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Magnetic Fields and Forces
• How to Find the Direction of a Magnetic Dipole Moment
• How to Calculate the Magnetic Force Perpendicular to the Direction of a Charge
• How to Calculate the Magnetic Force at an Angle to a Charge
• Calculating the Direction of a Magnetic Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field
• Determining the Trajectory of a Charged Particle in a Uniform Magnetic Field
• Determining the Magnitude of the Magnetic Field Some Distance from a Straight Current Carrying Wire
• Determining the Direction of the Magnetic Field Around a Straight Current-Carrying Wire
• How to Calculate the Magnetic Force Perpendicular to Current-Carrying Wire
• Determining the Orientation of a Magnetic Dipole in a Magnetic Field
• How to Draw the Magnetic Field Lines of a Dipole
• Determining the Behavior of a Paramagnetic Material in an External Magnetic Field
Magnetic Flux
• How to Calculate the Flux Perpendicular to a Loop of Wire
• How to Calculate the Flux at an Angle to a Loop of Wire
• How to Calculate Change in Magnetic Flux Due to Change in Magnetic Field Strength
• How to Calculate Change in Magnetic Flux Due to Change in Area of the Relevant Region
• How to Find the Direction of Induced emf Using Conservation of Energy
• How to Calculate Induced Electromotive Force and Current
Geometric and Physical Optics
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Waves
• Determining Whether a Wave is Transverse or Longitudinal
• Finding the Direction of Polarization of an Electromagnetic Wave
• How to Use the Right Hand Rule to Find the Direction of Propagation of an Electromagnetic Wave
• How to Use the Right Hand Rule to Find the Direction of the Electric Field
• How to Use the Right Hand Rule to Determine the Direction of the Magnetic Field
• How to Find the Frequency of Light from its Wavelength
• How to Find the Wavelength of Light Using its Frequency
• Identifying a Light Wave's Range on the Electromagnetic Spectrum
• How to Determine the Frequency of a Wave Graphically
• Determining the Period of a Wave Graphically
• How to Determine the Amplitude of a Wave Graphically
• Graphing a Periodic Wave Using a Sine or Cosine Function
• Writing the Equation of a Periodic Wave from a Graph
Refraction, Reflection, and Absorption
• How to Calculate the Reflection Angle on a Flat Surface
• How to Calculate the Final Reflection Angle Across Multiple Flat Surfaces
• How to Calculate the Speed of Light in a Medium Given the Index of Refraction
• Calculating the Change in Wavelength of a Light Wave in a Medium Given the Index of Refraction
• How to Use Snell's Law to Find the Angle of Refraction of Light Traveling from a Lower to a Higher Index of Refraction Medium
• How to Use Snell's Law to Find the Angle of Refraction of Light Travelling from a Higher to Lower Index of Refraction Medium
• How to Use Snell's Law to Find the Ratio of Indices of Refraction Given a Path of Light Through a Boundary
• How to Use Snell's Law to Find the Displacement of an Image Viewed Through a Material More Optically Dense than Air
• Finding the Angle of Incidence Required for Total Internal Reflection across a Boundary
Images from Lenses and Mirrors
• How to Draw a Ray Tracing Diagram for an Object in front of a Corner Mirror
• How to Draw a Ray Diagram for an Object in Front of a Concave Mirror
• How to Draw a Ray Diagram for an Object In Front of a Convex Mirror
• How to Draw a Ray Diagram for a Concave Lens
• How to Draw a Ray Diagram for a Convex Lens
• How to Calculate the Magnification of a Concave Mirror
• How to Calculate the Focal Point of a Concave Mirror Using the Mirror Equation
• How to Calculate the Height of an Image for a Concave Mirror
• How to Calculate the Magnification of a Convex Mirror
• How to Calculate the Focal Point of a Convex Mirror Using Mirror Equation
• How to Calculate the Height of an Image for a Convex Mirror
• How to Use the Lens Equation to Find the Distance of an Image from a Lens
• How to Use the Lens Equation to Find the Distance of an Object from a Lens
• How to Calculate the Focal Length of a Lens Given Index of Refraction
• How to Use the Lens Equation to Find the Focal Length of a Lens
• Using a Ray Tracing Diagram and the Lens Equation to Find the Image Produced by Two Identical Lenses
• Using a Ray Tracing Diagram & the Lens Equation to Find the Image Produced by Two Lenses with Different Focal Lengths
• Determining if an Image is Real or Virtual
Interference and Diffraction
• How to Calculate the Amplitude of Two Waves in Superposition
• How to Calculate Path Difference Required for Destructive Interference
• Finding Width of Central Fringe in Single Slit
• Finding the Distance between the 1st & 2nd Bright Fringes from a Double Slit
• Finding Positions of Dark Fringes in Single Slit
• How to Find the Wavelength of Light in a Single Slit Experiment Using the Spacing in the Interference Pattern
• How to Find the Wavelength of Light in a Double Slit Experiment Using the Spacing in the Interference Pattern
• How to Find the Dimension of a Single Slit Using the Spacing in an Interference Pattern
• How to Find the Dimension of a Double Slit Using the Spacing in an Interference Pattern
• Predicting if a Single Slit Will Produce an Interference Pattern Based on its Relative Size
Quantum, Atomic, and Nuclear Physics
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Systems and Fundamental Forces
• Determining an Element from its Proton Number
• How to Determine the Number of Neutrons in an Isotope from its Mass Number
• How to Determine the Number of Electrons in an Atom or Ion From its Proton Number
• How to Use Conservation of Charge to Determine Unknown Coefficients in a Nuclear Decay Equation
• Determining if a Particle Collision is Elastic or Inelastic
• How to Find the Final Velocity of a Particle in Radioactive Decay in Two Dimensions
• How to Find the Center of Mass of a Group of Two or More Particles
• How to Use Conservation of Nucleon Number to Find Unknown Coefficients in a Nuclear Reaction or Decay
• How to Use Conservation of Nucleon Number and Conservation of Charge Simultaneously to Find Unknown Coefficients in a Nuclear Reaction or Decay
• How to Find the Total Internal Energy of a Nuclear System
• How to Find the Frequency of a Photon Emitted by an Electron Transition
• How to Find the Frequency of a Photon Absorbed by an Electron Transition
• How to Find the Wavelength of a Photon Emitted by an Electron Transition
• How to Find the Wavelength of a Photon Absorbed by an Electron Transition
• Identifying the Correct Sketch for a Spectrum of Light Emitted by Transitions in a Bohr-like Atom of Specified Energy Levels
Mass Energy Equivalence
• How to Calculate the Rest Mass of a Particle
• How to Find the Binding Energy of a Nucleon Using Internal Energy
• How to Calculate Work Done on a Nucleon that Undergoes Fission
• How to Calculate the Power Produced in Nuclear Fusion
Properties of Waves and Particles
• How to Calculate the de Broglie Wavelength of a Particle
• How to Calculate the Momentum of a Wave Packet from its Wavelength
• Determining which Reference Frame will Measure an Object to have Longer Length
• Determining which Reference Frame will Measure a Time Interval to be Shorter
Photoelectric Effect
• Calculating the Energy of a Light Wave Given Frequency
• Finding the Frequency Threshold of Incident Light for Electron Emission from a Material with Given Work Function
• How to Find the Work Function of a Material Given Experimental Data from the Photoelectric Effect
• Finding the Average Velocity of Electrons Emitted in a Photoelectric Experiment with Given Incident Light Frequency and Material Work Function
Wave Functions and Probability
• Using a Graph of a Wavefunction to Determine the Most Likely Position of a Particle
• How to Calculate the Half-Life of a Decaying Substance
• How to Calculate the Number of Nuclei at a Specific Time

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