Summative Assessment Definition
The definition of summative assessment is any method of evaluation performed at the end of a unit that allows a teacher to measure a student's understanding, typically against standardized criteria. The purpose of summative assessment is to gauge students' comprehension of the material presented at the end of a particular unit of work, and is often measured with a grade or percentage, depending on the subject.
In contrast to the informal nature of formative assessments, summative assessments require clear expectations and timelines to be set to give students the best opportunity to succeed. Teachers use rubrics, or assessment criteria, to ensure students understand what to expect in any such test. The results of summative assessments are usually significant, used to determine whether a student passes a unit or even a class.
Summative Assessment Examples
Examples of summative assessments may include:
- Written Assessment: Students will be tasked with writing an original piece, such as a narrative or analytical essay.
- Performance Assessment: With this type, students will be required to do an activity or task that will showcase their abilities.
- Standardized Assessment: Students will take an exam created for a given curriculum and will be measured against existing rubric, shared with the students throughout the course.
- Oral Assessment: Students will craft and deliver an oral piece, such as a speech or presentation.
Teachers can also utilize this summative assessment in the field of social work and apply it to students in their classroom. It illustrates how social workers can utilize summative assessments to determine if an intervention was successful for a client. The same concept can be applied to determining if a teacher's instructional method is successful for students.
For assessments in a learner-centered classroom, teachers are not solely responsible for students' learning and performance. Instead, students share in the process and take an active role in their education.
Formative vs. Summative Assessment
Along with summative assessments, teachers can also use the method of formative assessments. The primary difference between formative and summative assessments is the time period in which they are given. While summative assessments are given upon lesson completion, formative assessments can be utilized as the lesson occurs.
The goal of formative assessment is to help teachers determine any areas of weakness or learning gaps in the material while it is being presented. Such a method allows teachers to shift their lesson plans accordingly.
Another difference between formative and summative assessment is the actual types of assessment used. Summative assessments are often graded material, while formative assessments can range from student or peer assessment to teacher assessment.
In contrast to a learning-centered environment, a competency-based classroom is rooted in student understanding. It is more important for students to grasp a concept than meeting a timeline. Students who are ahead of their peers can use formative assessments as practice before taking the summative assessment at the end of the lesson.
Learning how to design effective assessments for students, whether formative or summative, improves not only students' performance, but allows teachers to reflect on and improve their practice.
Additional Summative Assessment Ideas
As well as the examples above, teachers can also incorporate more creative methods into their teaching. Here are some additional summative assessment ideas that go beyond the traditional quiz or written report:
- Classroom or school-wide scavenger hunt on the material presented
- Crossword puzzle incorporating math problems or vocabulary words
- Classroom or school-wide science fair
Teachers select summative assessment strategies that best suit their students and the material covered in the curriculum. Assessment strategies chosen will have clearly defined parameters in order to effectively test students' knowledge and/or skills.
Selecting and using a range of student assessment methods helps to engage all types of learners and lets each student demonstrate their skills. For example, a few summative assessment ideas for music students include having them take a test, play together in a mini-performance, or even make a music video!