State guidelines for teacher certification and an individual's existing level of education dictate the level of training necessary to teach in this field. ESL and Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) programs offer research and education methods in addition to historical and linguistic analyses of English. These programs award certificates, undergraduate degrees and graduate degrees.
A bachelor's degree in education is required for teacher certification. Graduate certificates can be enough for students who have a bachelor's degree in another field to teach ESL. Master's degree programs prepare students to develop adult education programs. Online certification programs to learn new practical and theoretical procedures are also available. Programs may include a student-teaching experience.
Subjects commonly discussed in ESL programs:
- Bilingual Education
- Cultural Diversity and Inclusivity
- English Composition
- Developmental Psychology
- Research Methods and Analysis
- Phonetics and Syntax
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List of Courses
Teaching English as a Second Language
In this overview course, students have the opportunity to observe ESL classes, create practice lessons and evaluate commonly used texts for teaching ESL. Teaching techniques for reading, writing, speaking and diagnosing language skills are also covered. This course is typically taken at the beginning of a sequence for teaching ESL and used as a foundation for subsequent classes.
Students critically analyze the components of language transfer and acquisition. An emphasis is placed on the psychological and sociological aspects of second language acquisition (SLA) that may hinder or bolster language transfer. After observing and comparing various theories and research, students often investigate and present their own language acquisition projects and findings. The goal of overcoming language acquisition barriers is paramount in this course.
Word formations, sentence structures and syntax are a few of the subjects covered in this course. Students learn the linguistic construction of the English language while exploring phonetics, language classification and semantics. An application of linguistic principles to language acquisition and research methods is also covered. This course is often divided into introductory and advanced classes that are taken at least twice throughout the curriculum.
Sociolinguistics studies examine how environments impact language, the history behind various dialects and the phenomenon of code-switching (intermixing languages in dialogue). Students are introduced to the historical, cultural and legal issues that influence language in minority and multiethnic schools, households and communities, as well as issues that arise in bilingual education programs. This course is often taken toward the middle or end of a program.